RF and Microwave Course Syllabus
Introduction to RF and Microwaves
 Spectrum of RF and Microwave Frequencies
 Frequency bands and Regions of Spectrum Allocations
 Time and Frequency Domains
 Fourier series and Fourier Transform
 Modulation (Heterodyning) and FrequencyShifting
 The Decibel for Power Ratios
 Summation of Voltages and Mean Power
 Representation of PowerVoltages dBm, dBW, dBµV/m
 Motivation for Wireless (Radio) communication
 Modeling Lumped and Distributed Components at Radio Frequencies
Noise in Communication Systems
 Introduction
 Classification of Noises and Thermal Noise
 Power Spectral Density of Noise
 BandLimited Noise, Amplitude and Phase Noise
 Noise Factor and Noise Figure
 Matching the Noise Figure to Input Noise Level
 Noise Temperature
 The Notion of Excess Noise
 Noise Factor of an Attenuator, Divider, Combiner
 Noise Factor of a Cascade
 Sensitivity
 Noise and Sensitivity of a Receiving RF Chain Cascade
 Measurement Methods of Noise Factor
 Noise and Sensitivity Performance with Antennas, G/T
 DesignRules for minimizing System Noise
NonLinearity Phenomenon
 Introduction and NonLinearity Phenomenon
 Spurious Signals
 OnedB Compression Point
 AM/AM and AM/PM below and into Compression
 Representing a Memoryless Response by a Power Series
 Harmonic Stimulus: Single and TowTones – Intermodulation
 InBand and Harmonics Spectrum
 2^{nd} and 3^{rd} Order Intercept Points
 SpuriousFree Dynamic Range (3^{rd} Order IM’s) SFDR3
 Characterizing NonLinearity of a Cascade of Blocks
 Measuring NonLinearity
 DesignRules for minimizing System NonLinearity
Performance Optimization of RF Chains
Propagation of EM Waves
 EM Waves
 The Atmosphere and Classification of its Layers
 Characteristics of the Wireless Path (Channel)
 FreeSpace Propagation of Waves – Friis Equation
 Link Budget and FreeSpace Path Losses
 Effective Isotropic Radiated Power – EIRP
 LineofSight (LOS) above Earth
 Path Loss for Communications over the Horizon
 Propagation in Urban Regions – HATA Models
 LogNormal Shadowing and ShaowMargin (Numerical Example)
 Indoors Communications – Measurements and a Computational Model
 Waves Propagation over Flat Earth
 PointtoPoint Communications with an Obstacle – Diffraction (Fresnel)
 Rayleigh (fast) Fading and FadeMargin
 Doppler Effect
 Scattering and Reflection (Radar Cross Section – RCS)
 Groundwave Propagation (Ranges vs. Frequencies)
 Sky Waves, Day/Night Frequencies
 Microwave Links, Ray Bending in Atmospheric Propagation
 Ducts, Tropospheric Propagation
Transmission Lines and Distributed Systems
 Introduction to Transmission Lines and Familiar Examples
 Lumped and Distributed Systems
 The Telegraph Equations and the Waves Solution
 The Wave Equation – Forward and Reverse Waves
 Characteristic Impedance and Propagation Velocity
 The Load (Relative to Z_{o}) Effect on the Reflected Wave
 Types of Transmission Lines (Coaxial, ConductorPair, Printed – Microstrip, Stripline)
 StandingWave in a TransmissionLine
 Reflection Coefficient and VoltageStandingWaveRatio (VSWR)
 Efficiency of PowerTransfer
 Terminations (Source and Load) of Transmission Lines
 Short, Open, and Matched Loads’ Impedance as viewed at the end of a VariableLength Transmission Line
 Reflection Parameters
 Transmission Parameters
 Wave representation of TwoPort and the SParameters
 Phase Velocity
 Group Velocity
 Dispersion
The Smith Chart and Load Matching
 Smith Chart – Impedance on the reflection plane
 Review of Transmission Lines and normalized impedances (by Z_{0})
 Display of Smith Chart – Constant Resistance and Reactance Circles
 Presenting Admittance in the Smith Chart
 Numerical Examples
 Fixed SWR Circles
 Finding the Impedance seen into a Loaded Reactive Circuit
 Impedance Matching – L, Π, T, Sections, Transmission Lines and Stubs
 Bandwidth of Matching Networks
 Quarter Wavelength Transformer
Transmit and Receive Architectures
 Heterodyne and SuperHeterodyne Receiver
 Intermediate Frequencies, Image Frequency, Heterodyning with/without Spectral Mirroring
 Input Band Filtering of Interference and Noise at Image Frequency
 An Example of an FM Receiver
 Transmission and Reception via Direct Conversion – InPhase and Quadrature (IQ) Mixing
 Design Considerations for an RFIC transceiver
 Software Defined Radio (SDR)
Spectral Analysis
 Signals in time and Frequency Domain
 Types of Spectrum Analyzers
 Basic Block Diagram of an Analog SA
 The SA as a Receiver
 Selectivity, AGC, LO Phase Noise
 Microwaves Spectrum Analyzer
 Frequency Resolution and RBW
 Limitations on the Sweep Rate
 RF Attenuator
 IF Amplification
 Shape Factor of the RBW Filter and Sweep Rate
 Noise Floor
 Video Signal Filtering (PostDetection)
 Filtering by Averaging Screens
 SA Controls (Span, RBW, Att, VBW)
 Dynamic Range
 Detector Types and their Characteristics
 Sampling and the Sampling Theorem
 Spectrum of a Uniformly Sampled Signal
 Artifacts in Digitally Processed Spectrum Display
 SideLobes in Frequency Domain and Windowing
 RBW broadening by Windowing
 2^{nd} and 3^{rd} Order Distortions and Spurii – Identification of Saturation in the SA
 Effect of LO Phase Noise
 Residual FM
 Time Domain Measurements – Zero Span
 Signal Power response in time
 Intermodulation Measurements
 Intermodulation with twotones Stimulus
 Adjacent channel power (ACP)
 Adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR)
 Tracking Generator Configuration and Scalar Network Analyzer Measurements
 Demonstration of SA operation and Measurements
RF and Microwave Passive Devices
 Active and Passive Devices
 Active: Amplifiers, Frequency Sources, Mixers, Antennas
 Passive: Filters, Duplexers/Multiplexers, Antennas, Mixers, Couplers, Dividers/Combiners
 Power Dividers and Combiners – Coherent, Incoherent and Partial Summation
 Isolators and Circulators
 Phase Shifter
 Attenuators, T and Π Pads
 Cables and Coaxial Connectors
 Switches
 S Parameters of Passives (Unitary Property for Lossless Passives)
Mixers
 What’s a Mixer?
 Frequency Shifting – Up and DownConversion
 Simple Diode Mixer
 Double Balanced Mixer
 Performance Parameters of a Mixer
 Isolation
 1 dB Compression
 VSWR
 Conversion Loss
 I/Q Mixer Imbalance
 Effect of Imbalance on EVM
 SubHarmonic Mixing
Filters
 Characterizing Filters
 Bandwidth
 Quality Factor
 Passband Insertion Loss
 Ripple
 Group Delay and GDV
 Shape Factor
 Prototype Normalized Response
 Chebyshev Filter
 Butterworth Filter
 Bessel Filter
 Eliptic Filter
 Determining the Filter Order
 Implementation Examples: Lumped Case
 Implementation Examples: Printed Case
 Additional Implementation Technologies: Resonators, YIG, Coaxial, Dielectric
Frequency Sources and Synthesizers
 Objectives and uses of Frequency/Clock Sources
 Classical Oscillators, Quartz and SAW Oscillators
 Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCOs)
 YIG Oscillators
 PLL Based Synthesizer
 Basic PLL
 Basics of a PLL Synthesizer
 Analog PLL Synthesizer
 MultiLoop Synthesizer
 Digital Synthesizer – Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS)
 Phase Noise
 Phase noise of a Crystal Source, of a VCO
 Phase Noise in a PLL Synthesizer
 Calculating Jitter from PhaseNoise Measurements
Vector Network Analyzer
 Introduction to the Network Analyzer
 Measurement Types Performed by the VNA
 Scalar and Vector Network Analysis
 Review of Transmission Lines
 Transmission and Reflection Parameters
 S parameters
 Construction of the VNA
 Coupling to the Measured Signals
 Detection Types
 Dynamic Range
 T/R Setup versus SParameters Measurements
 Types of Measurements Errors
 Basic Error Models and Calibration
 OnePort and TwoPort Models
 Review of Calibration Methodologies for Minimization of Errors
 Measurements Review – Power Sweep for AM/AM, AM/PM, and Harmonics
 Time Domain Measurements (TDR)
 Demonstration of VNA operation and Measurements
Digital Modulations
Introduction/basic concepts
Digital Communication System

Coding Rate

Eb/No – The Normalized SNR

Digital Modulation Types

Digital Modulation Signals

Received Complex Envelope

Digital Modulator
Digital Modulation with Single Waveform (QAM) PSKPhase Shift Keying
 ASKAmplitude Shift Keying (PAM)
 QAM (square grid) Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
 APSK
 Variations of QAM
 Receiver for Single Waveform Modulation
 Matched Filter, Correlator, Nyquist Theorem
 QAM performances: Waveforms, Spectrum, BW, Probability of error
Digital Modulation with M Orthogonal WaveformsMOK
Pulse Position ModulationPPM

Walsh Hadamard

MFSK

Transmitter

Coherent/Non Coherent Receiver for MOK

Performances: BW and Probability of error

Multiple Access Methods
Introduction Resource Allocation
 Duplexing
 Multiplexing
 Multiple Access
Time DivisionFrequency DivisionCode Division Frequency Hopping
 DS Modulation
Random AccessApplications and design considerations Frequency Division Duplexing – FDD/Time Division Duplexing – TDD
 CDMA vs. Time division and Frequency Division
OFDM, OFDMA
MultiCarrier methods Orthogonality concept
 Orthogonal frequencydivision multiplexing – OFDM
 Orthogonal frequencydivision multiple access – OFDMA
 Transmitter / Receiver implementation
OFDM characteristic Cyclic prefix
 OFDM Waveforms
 OFDM Spectrum
Design Considerations and Applications Multicarrier Technology Advantages
 Fast Scheduling and Link Adaptation
 Throughput Maximization by Adaptive Transmission
 Implementation in LTE
PAPR – peaktoaverage power ratio PAPR Mitigation TechniquesAntennas
 The Role of the Antenna
 Review of EM Waves in Space and Matching in Transmission Lines
 The Antenna Characteristics
 Frequency Range
 Antenna Directivity and Gain
 Antenna Pattern
 Polar Pattern Display
 Cartesian Pattern Display
 Beamwidth
 Main Lobe and SideLobes
 FronttoBack Ratio
 Antenna Aperture
 Polarization of EM Waves
 Polarization Types: Linear (Vertical, Horizontal) Circular
 FarField Range
 HighLevel Review of Basic Antennas
 HalfWave Dipole
 Dipole over a Backscreen
 Corner Reflector
 Ground Plane and the Monopole
 Slot Antennas
 LongWire Antennas
 Loop Antennas
 Helix Antenna
 Yagi Antenna
 Broadband Antennas (Logarithmic, Spiral)
 Horn Antenna
 Printed Antennas
 Microstrip Antenna
 Fractal Antennas
 Short Backfire Antenna
 Antenna Arrays
 Phased Arrays
 Adaptive Arrays
 Parabolic Reflector Antenna
 Converting Balanced and Unbalanced Lines (Baluns)
 Radomes
 DAS – Distributed Antenna Systems
 Antenna Measurements
 (Far and NearField Measurements)
RF and MW Design with Simulation SoftwareCST
 Introduction & BuiltIn Help
 Basic Modeling
 CST MICROWAVE STUDIO Solver Overview
 Ports, Materials & Boundary Conditions
 Result Handling & Templatebased Postprocessing
 Optimizer Overview
 Workflow Example 1: Microstrip – Quarterwave Transformer
 Workflow Example 2: Printed LPF filter
 Homework: Wilkinson Power Divider
Demonstration and Handon of Practical Measurements
Spectrum Analyzer (SA) – Measurements Demo Parameters and Measurement types of the SA
 Resolution and Video Bandwidth
 Attenuation and Scaling
 Channel Power
 Adjacent Channel Power
 Sensitivity and Noise Floor: Dependence on RBW, ATT, Improvement with LNA
 WCDMA signal PeaktoAverage Power (PAR) Measurements
 TimeDomain Measurements on Zero Span of a Pulsed Periodic Signal
 Demo of Heterodyning – Sum and Difference Frequencies, and Leakages
Vector Network Analyzer (VNA)– Measurements Demo Setting Up and Calibrating the VNA
 S11 of an Antenna
 S11 of a Variable length Loaded Transmission Line
 Power Sweep Measurements of an Amplifier and Displaying AM/AM, AM/PM and Harmonics
 Filter Response including Amplitude, Phase and GDV
 Response of a Differentiator
Vector Signal Analyzer (VSA) – Measurements Demo QPSK Signal Demo: EVM, EyePattern, EyeOpening, PAR, Spectrum
 Same as above with Additive Noise
 I/Q Mixer Modulation Demo, Demonstration of the Image Rejection
 OFDM Signal Spectrum, Time0Gated Spectrum of Sections of the Symbol